TECHNICAL PART OF PROPOSAL

TECHNICAL PART OF PROPOSAL

2.1. Initial data. Short description of the process.

By prior appointment, TCP is formed for the following conditions:

  1. Raw material for ethanol production – grain corn that by its characteristics meets the requirements of “Special terms of cereal products supply”, approved by the decision of State Arbitration of USSR dated 16.01.1975. No. 102, the cereal products that are unsuitable for food grocery and fodder purposes, are supplied to the enterprises of alcohol industry foremost. They should have following characteristics:
    1. bulk density, g/l - 680 … 820;
    2. moisture content, % - 13 … 14;
    3. the impurities content in commercial grain, % - 1,0 … 2,0;
  2. Main market product – dehydrated ethyl alcohol, for the next usage of biofuel production. Total capacity of dehydrated ethyl alcohol production – 10000 dals per day;
  3. Complete utilization of DDGS and complex processing of raw materials for the receiving of market products batch, used in fodder and food products production;
  4. Complete filtration of technical streams for the returning into the technological process.

2.1.1. General technology of production

TCP offers a well-known technology for the processing of starch-containing raw materials - grain into ethanol. Balance diagram of production is attached in the applications. Proposed technology consist the following novelty aspects:

  1. Complex grain raw materials processing;
  2. The use of hydro-fermentation technology for starch disrupture;
  3. The usage of column units that works under the gage pressure or vacuum, for distillation and rectification of distiller’s wort;
  4. The usage of membrane technology for ethanol dehydration;
  5. The use of membrane technology for DDGS separation products condensation;
  6. The use of membrane technology for technical streams filtration;
  7. The system of automatic checkout and control system of manufactory on all stages of market products production.

The utilization of fermentation gases is not considered in this technical and commercial proposal because of the high energy intensity, but can be evaluated in detail if there is interest of potential investors in the production of carbon dioxide in the subsequent stages of the project. The technology of complex processing of grain raw materials is presented only descriptively, but can be developed in detail if there is interest of potential investors in the production of a line of food products and feed at the subsequent stages of the project.

2.1.2. Compartment 01 – reception room of grain from the automobile transport. Compartment 02 – grain storage with conditioning room

Compartment 01 – reception room of grain from the automobile transport is used for receiving the grain, weighing and transferring it to the compartment 02 – grain storage with conditioning room. The balance of raw, products and waste for the compartment s 01 and 02 is described in table 2.1.2.

Table 2.1.2. The balance of raw, products and waste

Raw/products Unit of measure Flow Remarks
hourly daily per year Specific per 1 Dal
Compartment 01. Reception room of grain from automobile transport
Commercial grain t. **** **** **** **** reception
Waste t. **** **** **** ****  
Commercial grain t. **** **** **** **** For the production to Compartment 02
Compartment 02. Grain storage with conditioning room
Commercial grain kg. **** **** **** ****  
Waste kg. **** **** **** ****  
Flour for production kg. **** **** **** **** For the production to Compartment 03

Hourly capacity of equipment of compartment 01 should provide the reception of necessary quantity of grain adjusted for coefficient of hourly and daily variation and reach NO LESS than 10,0 … 15.0 tons, and compartment 02 – clearance and processing/draining of grain and its storage for 3 … 12 months depending on local conditions. Truck tippers are used for high-sided truck’s discharge. The discharge of the grain from the tip-truck is made by gravity to the intake hoppers. All grain ingoing on the manufactory with the percentage of impurity higher than standardize, should undergo treatment on grain-cleaning machines to the standards corresponding to the intended end-use. The grain is to be distributed on the warehouse strictly regarding to the culture and qualitative features. The volume of elevator or floor storage should be no less than 1,5 … 2,0 thousand tons. The utility balance for these Compartment s is tabulate in 2.1.3.

Table 2.1.3. Utility balance

Raw/products Unit of measure Flow Remarks
hourly daily per year Specific per 1 Dal
Compartment 01. Reception room of grain from automobile transport
Electrical power kWe*hour **** **** **** **** In-house process engineering standards 03-89
Compartment 02. Grain storage with conditioning room
Electrical power kWe*hour **** **** **** **** In-house process engineering standards 03-89
Heat energy for drying kg.         Is calculated regarding to the grain characteristics

2.1.3. Compartment 03 – grain conditioning room

Primary task of the compartment 03 – grain conditioning room:

  1. storage of a 3-day stock of grain, which allows you to create a stock of grain for the weekend;
  2. crushing and grinding grain;
  3. grain mixing

Grain before entering the cooking passes the following conditioning: separation of metal impurities on a magnetic separator, weighing, two-stage crushing. To prepare the batch, flour with a degree of grinding of AT LEAST 98 ... 99% is mixed with artesian water, a permeate of a microfiltration separation and condensation unit and with filtrate of residue water. Enzyme preparations destroying starch to dextrins are set in the chanter of kneading.
The use of permeate and filtrate helps to solve the following main tasks:

  1. the decrement of artesian water takeoff on the process purposes;
  2. the exclusion of permanent technological discharges into the sewer;
  3. the reduction of process heat consumption;

Balance of raw materials, products and waste is tabulated in 2.1.4.

Table 2.1.4. The balance of raw materials, products and waste

Raw/products Unit of measure Flow Remarks
hourly daily per year Specific per 1 Dal
flour kg **** **** **** ****  
artesian water kg **** **** **** ****  
permeate kg **** **** **** ****  
filtrate of residue water kg **** **** **** ****  
batch kg **** **** **** ****  
enzyme preparations kg **** **** **** ****  

The balance of energy resources for the compartment is tabulated in 2.1.5.

Table 2.1.5. The balance of energy resources

Raw/products Unit of measure Flow Remarks
hourly daily per year Specific per 1 Dal
Electrical power kWe*hour **** **** **** ****  
Artesian water m3 **** **** **** ****  
Heat energy kJ **** **** **** ****  

The electrical energy and heat energy flow is accepted regarding to the analogue projects with reappraisal for working modes.

2.1.4. Compartment 04 – cooking and conversion room

The mixture from Compartment 03 is pumped over to the Compartment 04, whereas the dissolution and scarification of the mixture with mash production in the hydro-fermentative processing apparatus under the influence of enzyme preparations entered into the mixture and additionally injected. Prepared mash is supplied for the fermentation to the compartment 05 – yeast fermentation room, the part of the mash is used for the growing of production yeast.
Balance of raw materials, products and waste is tabulated in 2.1.6.

Table 2.1.6. Balance of raw, products and waste

Raw/products Unit of measure Flow Remarks
hourly daily per year Specific per 1 Dal
Mixture m3 **** **** **** ****  
Mash for the fermentation m3 **** **** **** ****  
Mash for the yeast production m3 **** **** **** ****  

The balance of energy resources for the compartment is tabulated in 2.1.5.

Table 2.1.7. Balance of energy resources

Raw/products Unit of measure Flow Remarks
hourly daily per year Specific per 1 Dal
Electrical energy kWe*hour **** **** **** ****  
Heat energy kJ **** **** **** ****  
Cooling water m3 **** **** **** ****  

The electrical energy and heat energy flow is accepted regarding to the analogue projects with reappraisal for working modes.

2.1.5. Compartment 05 – yeast fermentation room

The alcohol distillery is produced during the mash fermentation process in the compartment 05 – yeast fermentation room. The continues subsequent flow schedule of attenuation in the fermentation battery of 10 fermenters, is accepted. Ready alcohol distillery is supplied on fermenter and then to the brew-purification department for the ethanol demerging.
Balance of raw materials, products and waste is tabulated in 2.1.8.
The balance of energy resources for the Compartment is tabulated in 2.1.9.
The energy resources output is accepted regarding to the analogue projects with reappraisal for working modes.

Table 2.1.8. Balance of raw, products and waste

Raw/products Unit of measure Flow Remarks
hourly daily per year Specific per 1 Dal
mash m3 **** **** **** ****  
Alcohol distillery m3 **** **** **** **** ABV of distillery 10% vol.
Anhydrous alcohol (а.а.) kg **** **** **** ****
Anhydrous alcohol (а.а.) дал **** **** **** ****
Anhydrous alcohol (а.а.) m3 **** **** **** ****
Dioxide carbon kg **** **** **** **** In-house process engineering standards 34-93

Table 2.1.9. Balance of energy resorces

Raw/products Unit of measure Flow Remarks
hourly daily per year Specific per 1 Dal
Electrical energy kWe*hour **** **** **** **** "CORN" project
Heat energy kJ **** **** **** ****  
Cooling water m3 **** **** **** **** "CORN" project

2.1.6. Compartment 06 – rectification room

The process of ethanol merging – distillation, strengthening and clearance of ethanol from impurities – rectification is implemented on two column units. Column units of the compartment works under the gage pressure and vacuum and this guarantees the complete recuperation of the heat of alcohol water steams.

    The batch of market is produces on the output from the compartment:
  1. ethanol, redistill 96% alcoholic content;
  2. fusel-oil.
    The main waste products of the compartment:
  1. DDGS;
  2. residual water.

Balance of raw materials, products and waste is tabulated in 2.1.10.

The balance of energy resources for the compartment is tabulated in 2.1.11.
The energy resources output is accepted regarding to the analogue projects with reappraisal for working modes.

Table 2.1.10. Balance of raw, products and waste

Raw/products Unit of measure Flow Remarks
hourly daily per year Specific per 1 Dal
Alcohol brew m3 **** **** **** ****  
Mass of а.а. kg **** **** **** ****  
Volume of а.а. Dal **** **** **** ****  
The same m3 **** **** **** ****  
Rectified ethanol, mass of а.а. kg **** **** **** **** GOST 5962-67*
Proof % vol. **** **** **** ****
Rectified ethanol, volume of а.а. Dal **** **** **** ****
СМ kg **** **** **** **** GOST 17071-91
Density g/ cm3 **** **** **** ****
Volume dal **** **** **** ****
DDGS kg **** **** **** ****  
Residual water kg **** **** **** ****  

Table 2.1.11. The balance of energy resources

Raw/products Unit of measure Flow Remarks
hourly daily per year Specific per 1 Dal
Electrical energy kWe*hour **** **** **** ****  
Heat energy kJ **** **** **** ****  
Cooling water m3 **** **** **** ****  
    As it was mentioned above the residuals of production are:
  1. DDGS;
  2. residual water

After the treatment they are used for the preparation of protein-vitamin concentrate and mixture. Ethanol, which has to be used for the dehydration, omitting alcohol receiving compartment, is transferred on dehydration.

2.1.7. Compartment 07 – alcohol receiving compartment

Rectified ethanol and fusel oil enters to the alcohol receiving compartment (No.07), and then transferred for dehydration. Through the alcohol storage, dehydrated ethanol is dispensed to customers.

2.1.8. Compartment 08 – alcohol storage

Alcohol storage is a series of vessels in which alcohol-containing products are stored. The storage capacity for rectified ethanol is recommended to accept no more than 2000 m3, which ensures storage of the product, with rated production capacity, for 15 ... 250 days, depending on the type of product. The total volume of the factory alcohol warehouse according to the requirements of In-house Process Engineering Standards 34-93 should not exceed 2000 m3, which is due to the high fire hazard of the products.
The proposed distribution of the alcohol warehouse by product type is given in table 2.1.12.

Table 2.1.12. Vessels for alcohol storage

Raw/products Unit of measure Flow Remarks
hourly daily per year Specific per 1 Dal
Rectified ethanol m3 **** **** **** **** In-house Process Engineering Standards 34-93
Dehydrated ethanol m3 **** **** **** ****
The mixture of concentrated fusel oils, ethers, aldehydes m3 **** **** **** ****

2.1.9. Compartment 09 – compartment for the ethanol dehydration

The purpose of ethanol dehydration – is to receive the ethanol with 99% volume proof. The description of dehydration technology should be discussed more in details. Currently, three technologies are most widely used on an industrial scale:

  1. dehydration with using solid generable sorbing agents, e.g. silica gel or zeolites;
  2. the rectification of ternary mixture – ethanol – water – benzol;
  3. the separation of water-alcohol steams on the “molecular sieve” type membranes.

Dehydration with the use of solid generable sorbents
The process of dehydration is made in the column units’ group- absorbers loaded with sorbents. Periodically, each absorber is used for regeneration. In the case of the use of silica gel, regeneration is carried out by purging the apparatus with dried steam.
Dehydration by the rectification of azeotrope ternary mixture
The technology of dehydration is based on phenomenon of creation of ternary mixture benzol – water – ethanol. This mixture has the lowest (64,9оС) temperature of boiling from mixture benzol-ethanol, ethanol-water and benzol-water. Upon distillation, the ternary mixture evaporates and is removed from the distillation / absolutizing column, and the component with the highest boiling point — absolute ethanol — remains in the vat fraction of the column.Dehydration with the use of membranes
The technology is based on the size difference between the water molecules and ethanol molecules. When the water-alcohol steam passes through the membrane, it passes the transmembrane space of water molecule, that has the lesser sizes than the ethanol molecule, and the ethanol molecules accumulates over the membrane. The process of separation and concentration is made in steam flow. After the concentration separated components condenses. The choice of dehydration technology will be done basing on technical and economical comparison of options and on the following stages of project implementation. It should be mentioned only the environmental hazard of dehydration by the rectification of ternary mixture connected with benzol appliance, that has toxic, carcinogenic properties and high if to compare with ethanol fire hazard. The technology of dehydration with use of solid generable sorbent agents is characterized by high energy intensity, and dehydration using membranes – by high cost. The most “clean way” is deemed to be using of membranes. Layout diagram for the project implementation with use of soli generable sorbent agents is given in application. It is noteworthy that in each of described technologies of ethanol dehydration the offtake of ethanol is made from the compartment 06, omitting the compartment 07. This was made with purpose to use the heat of rectified ethanol, because all the dehydration processes are made under the high temperatures of water-alcohol solutions and steams. Dehydrated ethanol is cooled through the compartment 07 and transferred to the compartment 08. Mass and energy resources balances of compartment 09 are calculated for option of dehydration with using the membranes – “molecular sieve”, the results of scoping calculations are given in the tables 2.1.14 and 2.1.15 accordingly. In the mass balance and energy resources balance tentatively agreed that all rectified ethanol from the compartment 06 is to be transferred on dehydration. The energy resources output is accepted regarding to the analogue projects with reappraisal for working modes.

Table 2.1.14. Balance of raw, products and waste

Raw/products Unit of measure Flow Remarks
hourly daily per year Specific per 1 Dal
Rectified ethanol, а.а. kg **** **** **** ****  
Proof % vol. **** **** **** ****  
Volume dal **** **** **** ****  
The same m3 **** **** **** ****  
Dehydrated ethanol, а.а. kg **** **** **** ****  
Proof % vol. **** **** **** ****  
Volume dal **** **** **** ****  
The same m3 **** **** **** ****  
Losses on dehydration kg **** **** **** ****  
Volume dal **** **** **** ****  
The same m3 **** **** **** ****  

Table 2.1.15. The balance of energy resources

Raw/products Unit of measure Flow Remarks
hourly daily per year Specific per 1 Dal
Electrical energy kWe*hour **** **** **** ****  
Heat energy kJ **** **** **** ****  
Cooling water m3 **** **** **** ****  
Artesian water m3 **** **** **** ****  

2.1.10. Compartment 10 – compartment of DDGS utilization

DDGS consist around 6-9% of solids that contains: crude protein, nitrogen-free extractable substances, fat, cellulose, ash, vitamins and microelements. It is not always rational to use liquid DDGS because of the storage problems, because the proteins which it contains begin to decompose after 24 hours and it is not economically profitable if to transport it for distances longer than 5 … 7 km. With purpose to use DDGS as the highly-nourishing fodder it is propose the multistage processing of it with following receiving of market products batch line, used as fodder for farm animals or as adjunct to concentrated feeding stuff. Additional the implementation of proposed technology provides the returning to the production the liquid phase of dreg and residual water, which significantly reduces the intake of fresh artesian water for technological needs. Besides, the environmental problem is being solved simultaneously – the protection of soils, surfaces and ground waters from contamination by the degradation products of DDGS, which is the case with the standard, nowadays, method of disposal of DDGS - keeping it in a storage. The propose technology of utilization is as follows. DDGS from the compartment 06 is cooling in recuperative heat-exchangers, which heats the processing medium and semi-products, then DDGS flows on decanters, where it is separated on solids - cake (40% of absolutely dry substances) and liquid – centrate (5% of absolutely dry substances). Cake can be turned out as the market product, but the drying of DDGS with the purpose of receiving protein-vitamin concentrate is more effective. Centrate is condensed of microfiltration unit for increasing of is quality as a market products and receiving of another market product – concentrate (22 … 25% of absolutely dry substances). It is possible to outtake the concentrate, as the self-consistent market product. But, with a purpose of improvement of nutritious qualities of protein-vitamin concentrate, it is mixed with cake and then dehydrated. The residuals from the centrate condensing – permeate (1,0 … 1,5% of absolutely dry substances), after its physical-chemical composition correction, returns into the compartment 03, whereas it used for the preparing of mixture. Residual water from the compartment 06 is cooled in recuperative heat-exchangers, heating the processing medium and semi-products, then it is cleaned on the osmotic membranes and after the composition correction of filtrate it is also used for the mixture preparing. Concentrate after the osmotic membranes is mixed with centrate and flows for the separation and condensing on the microfiltration unit. The proposed technology of DDGS utilization is set off completely on the bioethanol factory АО «BIOFUTURE» (Silute, Lithuania) Mass balances and energy resources balance of compartment 10 are given in the tables 2.1.16 and 2.1.17 accordingly. The energy resources output is accepted regarding to the analogue projects with reappraisal for working modes.

Table 2.1.16. Balance of raw, products and waste

Raw/products Unit of measure Flow Remarks
hourly daily per year Specific per 1 Dal
DDGS           raw
Mass flow kg **** **** **** ****
Volume flow m3 **** **** **** ****
Volume flow          
Mass flow kg **** **** **** ****
Volume flow m3 **** **** **** ****
DDGS            
Mass flow kg **** **** **** **** Market product
Volume flow m3 **** **** **** ****
or            
Solids of DDGS kg **** **** **** **** Market product
Concentrate of dreg’s centrate kg **** **** **** ****
or            
Dry protein-vitamin concentrate kg **** **** **** **** Market product
Permeate of dreg’s centrate kg **** **** **** **** Residuals, used for the mixture preparing
Residual water’s centrate kg **** **** **** ****

Table 2.1.17. Balance of energy resources

Raw/products Unit of measure Flow Remarks
hourly daily per year Specific per 1 Dal
Electrical energy kWe*hour **** **** **** ****  
Heat energy kJ **** **** **** ****  
Cooling water m3 **** **** **** ****  
Artesian water m3 **** **** **** ****  

2.1.11. Compartment 11 – compartment of complex grain raw materials processing

The proposal for the organization of complex grain raw materials processing compartment is an option, which may be realized for significant increasing of technical and economical values of project. The part of technology, as the pilot-line production, was the realized by our long-term client – TOV “ORGANIKA” (Ukraine, Ternopil region, Chortkiv city).

    The compartment works on corn and produces:
  1. corn oil;
  2. corn groats;
  3. corn flour.

Corn flour is used as the raw material for the starch production. In its turn, the starch is used as the raw material for the ethanol, starch HT and high DE syrups production. Starch Ht can be used as the raw for the readily marketable products – biopolymers. Biopolymers – are bio-degradable polymeric materials used for the packing, disposable tableware and etc. The waste of compartment used as the fodder’s enrichers. According to estimates, the technology guarantees value-added use about of 99% raw mass. Mass balances and energy resources balances of compartment 11 are given in the tables 2.1.18 и 2.1.19 accordingly. Mass balance estimated on the condition of starch production in sufficient scale for the production of 10000 Dal of ethanol per day. The energy resources output is accepted by experience of pilot plant operating and does not include the ability of high DE syrups release.

Table 2.1.18. Balance of raw, products and waste

Raw/products Unit of measure Flow Remarks
hourly daily per year Specific per 1 Dal
Market grain kg **** **** **** **** Raw
Corn seed kg **** **** **** **** Semi-product
Refined corn oil kg **** **** **** **** Market product
Or            
Sweeten corn oil kg **** **** **** **** Market product
Or            
Winterized corn oil kg **** **** **** **** Market product
Сake meal kg **** **** **** **** Waste, used for the fodder production
Glume and other waste kg **** **** **** ****
The residuals from oil productin kg **** **** **** ****
Flour kg **** **** **** **** Market product or raw used for ethanol production

Table 2.1.19. Balance of energy resources

Raw/products Unit of measure Flow Remarks
hourly daily per year Specific per 1 Dal
Electrical energy kWe*hour **** **** **** ****  
Heat energy kJ **** **** **** ****  
Cooling water m3 **** **** **** ****  
Artesian water m3 **** **** **** ****  

2.2. Comments to the paragraph 2.1

  1. The production scheme is accepted by Contractor, but this does not exclude possible differences between the production schedules realizes by project or maintained by Customer:
  2. Detail calculations of mass and energy balances on the stage of technical and commercial proposal preparation were not done, that is why bit is possible that some variation from declared values may occur.

2.3. Automatic process control system – APCS

The information about APCS is given as the excerpts from system description manual, that will be concluded as the element of Technical project for APCS creation.

2.3.1. Appointment of APCS

    APCS performs the following functions:
  1. gathering, processing: reflecting and analyzing of information (signals, messages, etc.) about the status of the controlled equipment;
  2. generation of necessary actuating signal;
  3. the transfer of actuating signals on operating actuators;
  4. actuating signals realization and its execution control;
  5. the information exchange between interdependent computer-based systems. APCS rated for long-termed continuous technological process.

2.3.2. The goal of APCS

    The main goals of APCS:
  1. achieving high efficiency of technological processes through the implementation of technological regulations, improving the quality of marketable products and reducing its cost;
  2. Creation of single plant automatic process control system; the integration of APCS with existing systems with subsequent development into a factory-wide information-computer control system.

2.3.3. The methods APCS’s goals attaining

    APCS’s goals can be attained by:
  1. the stabilization of technical process parameters and process operation by mass algorithm;
  2. the use of seamless inspection equipment from leading global producers;
  3. the constant control of processing equipment and the processes in whole;
  4. process signaling about the parameters signoff the given values;
  5. the protocoling and arching of the processes basic parameters, enabling to make the rapid analysis of operation of equipment quality, the production run, and staff;
  6. the minimizing of human aspect on the production run maintenance;
  7. the use of single platform of software and hardware – programmable logic controller «PLC Premium» («Schneider Electric ») and SCADA «BSS CrossControl» digital solution, developed by TOV “BIOTECHSOYUZ” for the «Windows»/«Linux» operation systems.

Logic diagram of APCS is given in the application.