Ceramic Membrane Structure
Ceramic membrane is made of 99.5% aluminum oxide and has an asymmetric structure represented by three layers:
- filtering layer (the thinnest inner layer);
- intermediate layer (middle layer);
- support layer (top layer).
Ceramic membrane structure:
Figure 1. Photo of ceramic membrane under scanning microscope 1 – filtering layer; 2 – intermediate layer; 3 – support layer
As it is shown in the figure above, the filtration principle in ceramic membrane is based on descending pore size which determines high membrane resistance (compared to traditional membranes), a high flow, low hydraulic resistance (compared to other types of membrane) and a low head loss.
Ceramic membrane elements can be single- or multichannel. External view of ceramic membrane elements:
Figure 2. External view of single- or multichannel ceramic membrane elements